Attenuation factors to correct for this have been determined. The analysis of peat samples has been facilitated by ashing material at 450°C prior to measurement.
By using the principle of superposition we can know that the layers toward the bottom are older than the layers toward the top.
The rock body shown in the pictures attached, started out as one layer, as millions and millions of years passed more layers of sedimentary rock were placed on top of each other one after another, each layer was deposited at a later time than the one before it.
The youngest layer is on the top, and the oldest layer is on the bottom.
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Pb emissions for samples in radioactive equilibrium, indicates that self-absorption in lake sediment samples does appear to be significant at lower energy levels.
These are the fundamental methods that are used in the field by geologists' and earth scientists to gather information about the relative age of rock bodies and other cool geologic stuff.
These principles are the principle of superposition, the principle of original horizontality, the principle of cross-cutting relationships, and the principle of inclusions.